SMNLW participant Maria Fernandez Elorriaga is the principal investigator and technical coordinator of a study investigating the use of the World Health Organization (WHO) Safe Childbirth Checklist to improve the quality of institutional delivery in Mexico. Maria is also co-investigator on two more studies of implementation science in maternal and perinatal care. In addition, Maria has worked as a primary and community care nurse in Spain, as a regional nutrition coordinator in Malawi and as child health and nutrition coordinator in the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. Continue reading “Global Leaders in Maternal Newborn Health: Maria Fernandez Elorriaga (Mexico)”
The FCI Program of MSH will be at the 17th General Membership Meeting of the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition in Seattle. Please join us for a breakfast and panel discussion on strategies for increasing access to misoprostol and oxytocin to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage and magnesium sulfate to treat pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.
By Milka Dinev, LAC Forum Regional Advisor, Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition
This post originally appeared on the Maternal Health Task Force blog.
During a donor visit to Peru in the year 2000, a maternal health supporter and friend saw that rural women in Peru were suffering and dying because they lacked access to safe maternal health services during the critical hours of childbirth. This young donor had recently had her children, so she decided to reward the unsung heroes who made extraordinary efforts to save the lives of women during childbirth. It would be the “Oscar” of maternal health and survival.
The Sarah Faith Award was created to promote and reward the extraordinary efforts made by health providers and communities to save the lives of mothers and their children. For ten years, this award provided funding and technical assistance to the health teams and communities that had demonstrated teamwork and solidarity. Most cases were heroic efforts – transporting a mother to a rural health facility on the shoulders of four or five men using a stretcher made of wood and blankets (or in a boat along the Amazon River) or a doctor/nurse giving his or her own blood for a much-needed transfusion. The award honored deserving teams with US$25,000 to improve their health facilities or their community services. This award was an extraordinary tool to improve morale among health providers and health promoters. Each winning team received a beautiful statue that they prominently displayed in their facility.
Yet, it is worthwhile to observe that an important selection criterion for the Sarah Faith Award is how applicants improved access to maternal health services. So what happens to women who do not have access to such heroes as the ones the Sarah Faith prize rewards? I do believe this is where supplies come into play, carrying out a crucial, lifesaving role. How many lives could be saved if pregnant women had free access to misoprostol in order to prevent postpartum hemorrhage during their home delivery, or if the nurse in the health facility could administer magnesium sulfate to women with pre-eclampsia to control their blood pressure? How many lives could be saved if oxytocin supplies were adequately refrigerated?
Arguably, services — with their immediate human element — make for better story-telling a lot of the time. And good storytelling is a mainstay of the marketing and publicity that surround award mechanisms. And by comparison, supplies often carry rather sterile connotations of warehouses, supply chains, and transportation.
Working at the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition, I am often struck by the challenge of even finding a photo that adequately tells the supplies story. And yes, there is a supplies story however, there is no “supplies award”. There is very little we do in promoting morale and engagement among those that work to make supplies available, accessible and affordable within a framework of quality and equity!
As far as maternal health supplies go, it is easy for groups to forget the role of the three key life-saving commodities and therefore fail to prioritize their presence in health facilities 100% of the time. Much of the assistance provided through the Sarah Faith Award was directed to the direct provision of these commodities: a good fridge for the oxytocin (and vaccines of course) and a training package to update providers on the use, dosage and storage of these supplies.
The Family Planning Community has this saying “no product no program”. It is time to start using a similar phrase that includes maternal health supplies as part of a holistic approach to safe motherhood.
By Deepti Tanuku, Program Director, USAID-Accelovate
This post originally appeared on the Maternal Health Task Force blog.
When I first entered this line of work, I often heard one thing: the maternal health market is way too small to be sustainable, much less lucrative. Naturally, one can only expect market failure for maternal health drugs and, by extension, a chronic situation of limited access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need.
However, I disagree.
The maternal health market is, of course, comparatively small when looking at the parallel markets for reproductive health, HIV, TB, malaria and even child health.
Take malaria for example. Prepared technical guidance provided by the President’s Malaria Initiative states that the unit cost for delivery of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) provided free of charge through antenatal clinics in four countries ranged from US $1.61 to $2.35 – which is roughly equivalent to the unit cost of US $1.50 for a delivery package of the three essential maternal health medicines: oxytocin, misoprostol and magnesium sulfate. However, in 2014 an estimated 214 million long-lasting insecticidal nets were delivered to malaria-endemic countries in Africa, while only 36 million women gave birth in the same region that same year. As any business school student can tell you, applying the formula of Price x Quantity = Revenue means that the maternal health market simply doesn’t compare in size.
This is the origin of the myth. For those of us committed to the goal of improved maternal health, we cannot confuse a small market with an unhealthy market – small can still mean healthy. Small can and should still mean a consistent and sustainable supply of high-quality and affordable maternal health drugs to all mothers in all settings.
There is a catch. The maternal health community cannot wait for market realities to drift toward our favor – we must actively and purposefully shape them. This begins with strong political will at both global and national levels. The creation of the UN Commission on Lifesaving Commodities for Women and Children is an excellent start, as is the inclusion of maternal health within the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC) agenda. These actions complement the ongoing efforts of other groups in this space, including the Maternal Health Task Force, itself.
The good news is that in the context of strong political will, there is plenty of research to shape evidence-based next steps. Together, we have built a clear understanding of market access barriers and we even know ways to incentivize around them. We also have market shaping strategies from other priority health areas, such as family planning, that serve as blueprints that we can adapt for our own purposes. As the maternal health community, it is up to us to use these tools to advocate for and help ourselves.
Oxytocin is the first-line drug for the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and is widely available in developing countries. There is a large market for oxytocin and there are many manufacturers of the drug; however, there are growing concerns that products are not in good condition when they are injected, either because of poor manufacturing or degradation along the supply chain.
Issues with inconsistent oxytocin quality
In 2012, a study by US Pharmacopeia and the Ghanaian Food and Drug Authority found that only 8% of oxytocin samples in Ghana had market authorization. The majority (97.5%) of samples failed either assay or sterility testing and over 55% of samples failed their physio-chemical assay. Even when a product is properly manufactured, storage and labeling of the drug along the supply chain and in facilities varies: in fact, only 8% of oxytocin samples were stored in the proper temperature (2°-8° C). The study ultimately concluded that 65.5% of oxytocin sampled in country did not meet quality standards, severely impairing the ability to prevent and treat PPH.
In most countries, we lack clear information about the quality of oxytocin administered to postpartum women. More studies are underway, as it is critically important to ensure that quality oxytocin is administered.
Limited product choices for quality oxytocin
In order to regulate quality, the WHO prequalification process helps identify quality drugs for countries. Currently, there are no WHO-prequalified oxytocin products; the only regulated products currently in the market are approved by Stringent Regulatory Authorities (SRAs), which are national bodies like the US Food and Drug Administration. This less stringent regulation is present despite a high volume market for oxytocin; globally, 100 million doses per year are used for prevention and treatment of PPH. There are at least 300 different oxytocin products manufactured by at least 100 manufacturers, creating a market that is difficult to regulate.
Most oxytocin in developing countries is procured by national procurement agencies, and most do not require WHO prequalification of oxytocin. These agencies are very resource-constrained and tend to focus on procuring high volume for low cost.
Current market structure threatens quality
For manufacturers, the low price of oxytocin—ranging from about $0.15 to $0.20 per 10 international unit (IU) dose—paired with a large number of competitors, creates a highly price-sensitive market. Achieving prequalification requires a manufacturer to upgrade its factory or improve manufacturing processes, likely adding 5-12% to the cost of products: a cost that makes thriving in the current market too difficult.
In a market where procurers do not require regulatory approval, prequalified or SRA-approved drugs simply will not be competitive against non-quality assured drugs and manufacturers will have no incentive to go through WHO prequalification. Instead, in order to stay competitive in the market, manufacturers will compromise the quality of their products order to keep prices low, boost sales and sustain profits.
Promoting a market shaping strategy for improved oxytocin
As the market for oxytocin grows, national governments and international partners must work together to ensure that manufacturers are incentivized to produce quality oxytocin. National governments and international partners should rally around a market shaping strategy that involves the following components:
International partners working with national procurement agencies to improve procurement guidelines and procedures to ensure that only quality drugs are accepted into countries
International partners working with National Drug Regulatory Agencies and others to increase awareness about quality issues with oxytocin
Stricter enforcement of national guidelines and routine quality audits of drugs
By Beth Yeager, Principal Technical Advisor, Management Sciences for Health & Chair, Maternal Health Supplies Caucus, Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition. This post originally appeared on the Maternal Health Task Force Blog.
Increasing access to essential medicines and supplies for maternal health requires a systems approach that includes: improving governance of pharmaceutical systems, strengthening supply chain management, increasing the availability of information for decision-making, developing appropriate financing strategies and promoting rational use of medicines and supplies.
It was an exciting year for maternal health. The UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children (UNCoLSC) had just released its report with 10 recommendations for improving access to 13 priority commodities that included 3 for maternal health: oxytocin, misoprostol and magnesium sulfate. The UNCoLSC report also reflected the idea that a systems approach was necessary and included recommendations related to both upstream and downstream supply chain bottlenecks, information, financing and appropriate use. That same year, the Maternal Health Supplies Caucus of the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition held its first membership meeting in October for the purpose of joining the maternal health and family planning communities to “draw on existing approaches to address the bottlenecks undermining commodity security across health systems.”
Since then, great progress has been made in identifying the bottlenecks to access, raising awareness of the complexity of addressing these challenges and increasing global commitment to ending preventable maternal deaths as part of the post-2015 development agenda.
With respect to governance, through the efforts of the UNCoLSC to promote coordinated national strategies for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (RMNCH), the need for coordinated planning among all stakeholders, including measures of accountability, has come to the forefront.
Reviewing national policies — such as the essential medicines lists and standard treatment guidelines — and advocating for the inclusion of the three priority maternal health medicines in these policies has raised awareness of both the need to harmonize policies at the national level and the challenges to implementing these policies.
Recognition of the importance of the regulatory role governments play in ensuring the quality of products in circulation in the public and private sectors has also grown. In a recent study conducted by the USAID-funded Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services program (SIAPS) in Bangladesh, we found that over 40% of the oxytocin in circulation at the district level was procured from local wholesalers.
Strengthening supply chain management
In terms of supply chain challenges, resources are now available to assist countries in more accurate forecasting for maternal health medicines. The Estimation of Unmet Medical Need for Essential Maternal Health Medicines developed by SIAPS (a project led by Management Sciences for Health with partners) presents an approach that allows national program managers and other key stakeholders to assess a country’s theoretical need for the three maternal health commodities and compare this with actual procurement data from past years in an effort to make more evidence-based decisions. The RMNCH quantification guidance developed by the Supply Chain Technical Resource Team of the UNCoLSC also includes the three maternal health medicines.
Information for decision making
Over the past three years, we have also learned how little information is readily available about these commodities and the conditions they are meant to treat at the country level. In many cases, logistic management information systems do not capture these three products (and many others necessary for maternal health). Likewise, health information systems do not necessarily capture the number of women who develop post-partum hemorrhage and are successfully treated. Efforts are currently underway in a number of countries to address this problem.
The global community has learned a lot these past three years and made great progress in further revealing the actions required to increase access to quality medicines and supplies for maternal health. With the current proposed target of ending preventable maternal deaths by 2030, global and national stakeholders need to continue their coordinated efforts to build stronger, more responsive systems.
Beth Yeager, MHS, is Principal Technical Advisor, SIAPS program, at Management Sciences for Health (MSH), Chair Maternal Health Supplies Caucus, Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition
The past ten years have witnessed impressive gains in the availability and use of reproductive health supplies like condoms and oral contraceptives that allow men and women to safely and effectively prevent or space pregnancies. As a result of concerted efforts by many partners, contraceptive prevalence rates have risen over 60% in countries around the world.
These dramatic successes in improving access to reproductive health supplies can shed important lessons and guidance for those working to ensure that life-saving maternal health medicines — including, oxytocin, misoprostol and magnesium sulfate — are available to all women, when they need them and wherever they give birth. These medicines — which can save lives by preventing or treating the leading causes of maternal death — remain out of reach for many women, particularly for poor, rural, indigenous and other vulnerable women. Many countries lack clear, supportive policies and adequate budgets to make essential maternal health medicines widely available, or have weak supply chains and logistical systems. Inadequate regulatory capacity, poor quality of medicines and lack of information and guidance on correct use are other barriers to access.
In order to summarize lessons learned and provide concrete tools to improve access to maternal health supplies, the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition tasked Family Care International to create seven policy briefs that show policy makers and program managers real-world examples of successful interventions. Importantly, there is a brief dedicated to each of the three most critical maternal health supplies: oxytocin, misoprostol and magnesium sulfate. Other briefs cover the cross-cutting issues of policy and financing, supply and demand generation.
Lessons learned from successful efforts to improve access to family planning commodities can help to effectively address the challenges related to maternal health medicines. Family planning advocates have, for example, tracked government expenditures on reproductive health supplies: in Indonesia, budget analysis and concerted advocacy led the mayors of five districts to increase their family planning budgets by as much as 80%. Similarly, many countries — including Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Paraguay — have established contraceptive security committees that bring together multiple supply chain stakeholders to support coordination, address long-term product availability issues and reduce duplication and inefficiencies. These committees have advocated for increased financial support for contraceptives, improved inventory management, developed standard operating procedures, published reports and provided technical assistance. These efforts to increase budgets and ensure commodity security for contraceptives can be effectively adapted and expanded to improve financing and security for maternal health supplies as well.
A wide range of tools and resources can support countries in strengthening their forecasting, procurement and other supply chain functions. Tools originally developed with a sole focus on reproductive health supplies now include or can be adapted to apply to maternal health supplies as well and can be used by country managers working to improve the supply of maternal health medicines.
Finally, many countries are moving toward integrating their supply chains to include family planning commodities and other essential medicines, including medicines for maternal health. In Ethiopia, for instance, the government (with the support of in-country partners) integrated their supply chain to include all health commodities and to connect all levels of the supply chain with accurate and timely data for decision-making. In Nicaragua, where the supply chain was separated vertically by health issue and type of commodity until 2005, the health ministry has integrated the essential medicines system with the contraceptives’ supply chain and has now fully automated the system and expanded it to include all essential medicines.
There are many parallels and potential synergies between reproductive and maternal health supply chains and processes. The reproductive and maternal health communities must take the following actions to address the interrelated barriers that prevent access to and use of life-saving commodities:
Advocate for development and implementation of supportive policies at the national and sub-national levels,
Advocate for dedicated budget lines to enable monitoring and evaluation of policy implementation
Improve government systems and procedures for procuring high-quality medicines and maintaining their quality throughout the supply chain
Invest in a streamlined, coordinated supply chain across sectors and levels, reducing inefficiency and duplicative efforts
Strengthen the knowledge and skills of health providers so that they are aware of evidence-based policies and guidelines and can effectively administer these essential medicines
The Maternal Health Task Force (MHTF), the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC)/Maternal Health Supplies Caucus (MHS) and Family Care International (FCI) share the goal of increasing awareness of the key role that reliable access to quality maternal and reproductive health supplies plays in reducing maternal mortality. To this end, we’d like to invite you to contribute a post to our blog series, Increasing access to maternal and reproductive health supplies: Leveraging lessons learned in preventing maternal mortality.
Our goal for this blog series is to create a platform for sharing innovative interventions, lessons-learned and opportunities for collaboration across various organizations and communities in terms of what can be done to ensure availability of quality maternal health supplies. The new global target of fewer than 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 births by 2030 makes timely access to quality maternal and reproductive health medicines and supplies for women even more critical.
Two of the major causes of maternal deaths are post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Both conditions can be successfully managed with proven interventions that include administration of oxytocin and misoprostol in the case of PPH, and magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Unfortunately, many health systems face challenges that limit access to these life-saving commodities. For example, in some cases there is insufficient funding for these medicines in national budgets, driving increased out-of-pocket spending. Likewise, regulatory agencies are sometimes unable to assure the quality of products circulating in the market due to funding and human resource constraints. Storage conditions remain inadequate for medicines with special storage requirements, like maintaining the cold chain. Lack of information systems that provide up-to-date, reliable data on supply availability further complicates the issue as managers are unable to make evidence-based decisions regarding supplies. Finally, demand side barriers exist as providers often lack appropriate guidance on the use of these life-saving supplies.
These challenges are not insurmountable. Indeed, many of these challenges have been successfully addressed in ensuring access to reproductive health commodities. The reproductive health community has worked for more than three decades to improve the quality of their supplies, strengthen the supply chains that deliver these supplies (mainly contraceptives) and create information systems that help managers make decisions regarding these supplies. Many of these lessons could well apply to increase accessibility and availability of quality maternal health supplies.
Questions and topics for potential guest posts:
What are the barriers you face in ensuring mothers get the supplies they need? How has your work addressed the complicated interplay between contributing factors that attribute to a mother not receiving the life-saving medicine she needs?
Are governments assuming responsibility for and taking the necessary actions to address maternal health supplies issues? What strategies have been successful to increase involvement of government in ensuring maternal health supplies?
What have been successful strategies to reduce financial barriers to access maternal health supplies?
What are lessons learned regarding supply chains for maternal health and information systems for their monitoring?
How can we best prepare health providers to both use maternal health supplies correctly and advocate for their use?
What strategies can be used to raise awareness of the importance of quality assurance among governments, health providers and women?
How can we use the lessons learned by the reproductive health community to advance the maternal health supplies issues?
If your work involves other factors related to supplies, please feel free to propose an original topic.
Shafia Rashid is senior program officer for global advocacy at Family Care International.
In late October, the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC) held its annual membership meeting in Mexico City. Representatives from governments, international organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and civil society came together to press for greater and more equitable access to reproductive health supplies. The RHSC’s focus includes family planning commodities, such as condoms, oral contraceptives, and other methods that allow men and women to safely and effectively prevent or space pregnancies.
This was my first time attending the annual RHSC meeting. I was there because the Coalition has expanded its mandate to explicitly address maternal health supplies. Earlier this year, it commissioned FCI to develop a series of seven policy briefs, Essential Medicines for Maternal Health: Ensuring Equitable Access for All, which were launched at the Mexico City meeting. These briefs highlight challenges and strategies for increasing the availability of three maternal health medicines – oxytocin, misoprostol, and magnesium sulfate – and:
Make the case for increasing priority and investment in these medicines
Provide examples of successful strategies from around the world
Highlight linkages with reproductive health supplies
A special plenary session addressed this crucial question: How are maternal health supplies reproductive health supplies? This sparked a wide-ranging, engaging, and very interesting discussion. Here are some of the key points that emerged:
Many countries can already see clear value in linking reproductive and maternal health supplies, and are moving toward integrating their supply chains to include family planning commodities and essential medicines, including medicines for maternal health. In Ethiopia, for instance, the government (with the support of in-country partners) integrated their supply chain to include all health commodities and to connect all levels of the supply chain with accurate and timely data for decision-making. In Nicaragua, where the supply chain was vertical until 2005, the health ministry has integrated the essential medicines system with the contraceptives’ supply chain, which has now been automated and expanded to include all essential medicines.
The RHSC and other partners have developed a wide range of tools and resources to support countries in strengthening their forecasting, procurement, and other supply chain functions. Tools originally developed with a sole focus on reproductive health supplies now include or can be adapted to apply to maternal health supplies as well, so they can now be used by country managers working to improve the supply of maternal health medicines.
Lessons learned from successes in improving access to family planning commodities can help us to effectively address the challenges related to maternal health medicines. Family planning advocates have, for example, tracked government expenditures on reproductive health supplies: in Indonesia, budget analysis and concerted advocacy led the mayors of five districts to increase their family planning budgets by as much as 80%. Similarly, many countries — including Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Paraguay – have established contraceptive security committees that bring together multiple supply chain stakeholders to support coordination, address long-term product availability issues, and reduce duplication and inefficiencies. These committees have advocated for increased financial support for contraceptives, improved inventory management, developed standard operating procedures, published reports, and provided technical assistance. These efforts to increase budgets and ensure commodity security for contraceptives can effectively adapted and expanded to improve financing and security for maternal health supplies as well.
Many parallels and potential synergies exist between maternal and reproductive health supplies, and the reproductive and maternal health communities must take action to address the interrelated barriers that prevent access to and use of life-saving commodities. These actions include:
Advocating for development and implementation of supportive policies at the national and sub-national levels, and for dedicated budget lines to enable monitoring and evaluation of policy implementation
Improving government systems and procedures for procuring high-quality medicines and maintaining their quality throughout the supply chain
Investing in a streamlined, coordinated supply chain across sectors and levels, reducing inefficiency and duplicative efforts
Strengthening the knowledge and skills of health providers so that they are aware of evidence-based policies and guidelines and can effectively administer these essential medicines
→ For more information, you can download the Essential Medicines for Maternal Health policy briefs here.
Shafia Rashid is a senior program officer for Global Advocacy at Family Care International.
While Senegal, a coastal West African country, has made considerable progress in decreasing maternal mortality since 1990, it still grapples with high rates of preventable maternal death. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH)—excessive, uncontrolled bleeding—remains the leading cause of maternal death in Senegal and around the world. In areas of Senegal where there is still a high prevalence of unattended deliveries, women may not have the means to manage PPH or other life-threatening complications.
Regardless of where they give birth, all women need access to uterus-contracting drugs, or uterotonics, for the prevention and treatment of PPH. The recommended uterotonic, injectable oxytocin, requires cold storage and technical skill to administer; oxytocin is also available as a Uniject® device—a pre-filled, single dose, non-reusable injection—which is easier to administer. Misoprostol is a safe and effective alternative in low-resources settings where oxytocin isn’t available or feasible; it doesn’t need refrigeration and is easy to use—particularly important in the absence of a skilled birth attendant.
Between June 2012 and August 2013, Gynuity Health Projects, ChildFund Senegal, the USAID Community Health Program, and the Senegalese government’s Directorate of Reproductive and Child Health implemented a study to compare community-level administration of oral misoprostol and oxytocin in Uniject® to prevent PPH. One of the two interventions was assigned to each of 28 participating community health huts, one- or two-room concrete structures that bring basic healthcare closer to the communities. Project implementers trained matrones, volunteer birth attendants, to assist with deliveries and administer the designated intervention.
Communities played an integral part in encouraging the use of misoprostol and oxytocin. Community members assisted in identifying pregnant women for initial prenatal check-ups, and project staff recruited women by visiting them in their communities.
Since the launch of the project, over 1300 women received either 600 mg (3 tablets) of misoprostol or 10 IU oxytocin via Uniject® intramuscularly for PPH prevention. Both medicines were effective, and the matrones could manage all side effects, which included chills, tremors and fever. Among all the women who received prophylaxis, only one case of postpartum hemorrhage occurred.
“Before this study, we saw a lot of women with heavy bleeding, and it was always difficult to arrange transportation for referrals [to health facilities],” said Fatou Diouf, a matrone from the Koulouk Mbada hut. “Now, we do not see any hemorrhage after delivery.”
Chief nurse Amadou Gueye from the Ndiaganiao health post noted a similar outcome: “Since the start of the study, we have not seen a single case of PPH.”
As a result of the project, home births decreased from 10% to 1%, project leaders effectively maintained drug stocks, health providers demonstrated commitment and motivation, and the matrones administered medications and filled out data management tools successfully. Birth attendance at the community health huts improved because women sought delivery services in order to benefit from a PPH medication.
“When I came to deliver this morning, the matrone asked me if I wanted to take the three tablets. I said yes,” said Mariama Niang who had recently given birth at the Koulouk Mbada health hut. “I bled less than I did in previous deliveries when I bled a lot and had lots of dizziness. […] now, I am doing well.”
In Senegal where access to health facilities may be limited in remote areas, the community health hut system can play an important role in preventing and treating PPH. According to the study, both misoprostol and oxytocin in Uniject® proved to be equally effective and safe in preventing PPH, and matrones posted at the health huts were capable of administering their assigned medicine. Whereas standard oxytocin injections require specialized skills, misoprostol and oxytocin in Uniject® are viable options at the community level. These health interventions can empower communities to protect women’s health and prevent unnecessary maternal death.
Through research and advocacy, Family Care International (FCI) is working with Gynuity Health Projects to support increased access to and availability of misoprostol for prevention and treatment of PPH. Learn more about FCI and Gynuity’s work to make misoprostol available to women around the globe.
Les nouveaux confins des soins de santé communautaire : Au Sénégal, les cases de santé utilisent le misoprostol et l’ocytocine par Uniject en vue de prévenir l’hémorragie du post-partum
Shafia Rashid est la Responsable du Programme Global Advocacy – « Plaidoyer mondial » auprès de Family Care International.
S’il est vrai que le Sénégal, pays côtier de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, a réalisé d’énormes progrès dans la baisse de la mortalité maternelle depuis 1990, il est toujours aux prises avec de forts taux de décès maternels évitables. L’Hémorragie du post-partum (HPP) – des saignements excessifs, difficiles à arrêter – demeure la principale cause de mortalité maternelle au Sénégal et à travers le monde. Dans des régions du Sénégal où il existe une forte prévalence d’accouchements en l’absence d’un personnel qualifié, il est possible que les femmes ne disposent pas de moyens pour le traitement de l’HPP ou d’autres complications potentiellement mortelles.
Quel que soit l’endroit où elles accouchent, toutes les femmes ont besoin d’avoir accès aux utérotoniques, les médicaments provoquant la contraction de l’utérus pour la prévention et le traitement de l’HPP. L’ocytocine injectable, l’utérotonique recommandé, nécessite la conservation à froid et des compétences techniques pour son administration ; l’ocytocine est également disponible en tant que dispositif Uniject® — une injection pré-remplie à dose unique et non réutilisable — qui est plus facile à administrer. Le misoprostol est une méthode alternative à l’ocytocine qui est sûre et efficace, particulièrement dans les milieux à faibles ressources où l’ocytocine n’est pas disponible ou faisable. Le misoprostol ne nécessite pas la réfrigération et est facile à utiliser — ce qui est notamment important en l’absence d’une accoucheuse qualifiée.
Entre juin 2012 et août 2013, Gynuity Health Projects, ChildFund Senegal, Programme de santé communautaire de l’USAID et la Direction de la Santé de la Reproduction et de la Survie de l’Enfant du gouvernement sénégalais ont mené une étude visant à comparer l’administration à l’échelle communautaire du misoprostol oral à celle de l’ocytocine par Uniject® en vue de prévenir l’HPP. Une des deux interventions était assignée à chacune des 28 cases de santé communautaires participantes, des structures en béton d’une à deux pièces, qui fournissent des soins de santé de base aux collectivités. Les exécutants du projet ont fourni une formation aux matrones, accoucheuses bénévoles, à apporter leur aide durant les accouchements et à administrer l’intervention désignée.
Les collectivités ont assumé un rôle essentiel en encourageant l’utilisation du misoprostol et de l’ocytocine. Les membres de la collectivité ont aidé à identifier les femmes enceintes pour les consultations prénatales initiales et le personnel du projet a recruté les femmes en leur rendant visite au sein de leur communauté.
Depuis le lancement du projet plus de 1 300 femmes ont reçu soit 600 mcg (3 comprimés) de misoprostol ou 10 UI d’ocytocine par Uniject® par voie intramusculaire pour la prévention de l’HPP. Les deux médicaments étaient efficaces et les matrones ont pu traiter tous les effets secondaires qui comprenaient notamment les frissons, les tremblements et la fièvre. Seul un cas d’hémorragie du post-partum est survenu parmi les femmes ayant reçu le traitement préventif.
« Avant cette étude, un grand nombre de femmes présentaient des saignements profus et il était toujours difficile d’assurer le transport pour leur acheminement [aux établissements de santé], » dit Fatou Diouf, une matrone de la case Koulouk Mbada. « Désormais, nous n’observons plus d’hémorragie après l’accouchement. »
Amadou Gueye, Infirmier en chef du poste de santé de Ndiaganiao, a noté un résultat analogue : « Nous n’avons observé aucun cas d’HPP depuis le début de l’étude. »
En raison du projet, le nombre d’accouchements à domicile a baissé de 10 % à 1 %, les responsables du projet ont effectivement maintenu les stocks de médicaments, les prestataires de santé ont démontré leur engagement et leur motivation et les matrones ont administré les médicaments et rempli les formulaires de gestion des données de manière adéquate. La présence des accoucheuses dans les cases de santé communautaire s’est renforcée parce que les femmes ont sollicité des services d’accouchement afin de bénéficier des médicaments de l’HPP.
« Ce matin, lorsque je suis venue pour accoucher, la matrone m’a demandé si je voulais prendre les trois comprimés. J’ai répondu oui, » dit Mariama Niang qui a récemment accouché à la case de santé de Koulouk Mbada. « Mes saignements étaient plus légers que ceux de mes accouchements précédents où ils étaient abondants et accompagnés de vertiges. […] maintenant, je me sens bien. »
Au Sénégal où l’accès aux établissements de santé peut être limité dans les zones reculées, le système des cases de santé communautaire peut jouer un rôle important dans la prévention et le traitement de l’HPP. Selon l’étude, le misoprostol ainsi que l’ocytocine par Uniject® se sont tous les deux avérés tout aussi efficaces et sûrs dans la prévention de l’HPP et les matrones affectées aux cases de santé étaient en mesure d’administrer les médicaments qui leur étaient assignés. Alors que les injections standards d’ocytocine nécessitent des compétences particulières, le misoprostol et l’ocytocine par Uniject® constituent des options viables à l’échelle communautaire. Ces interventions médicales peuvent habiliter les collectivités à protéger la santé des femmes et à prévenir des décès maternels évitables.
Family care International (FCI) collabore avec Gynuity Health Projects au moyen de la recherche et du plaidoyer en vue de favoriser un accès accru au misoprostol et sa disponibilité pour la prévention et le traitement de l’HPP. Trouvez de plus amples informations relatives aux travaux de FCI et de Gynuity visant à mettre le misoprostol à la disposition des femmes à travers le monde.